It has been predicted that the 21st Century will witness unprecedented technological revolution in all fields of engineering. The development of materials which will imitate human intelligence, and have advanced functional properties will dominate the technological arena in the 21st Century. This prediction is already being fulfilled and new ceramics are playing a very vital role. Sophisticated technologies are today evolving which are used for surface hardening of metals for metal property improvement for use in different areas of engineering. At a conference in 2008 at Kobe–Japan we were given a form to indicate what we considered as the cutting -edge technology in Surface Finishing Engineering in the last thirty years and I indicated the technology in surface finishing engineering based on Plasma Technology. My reasons for this answer were simply hinged on the quality of surfaces obtained, the low temperatures generated and the fact that hardness and refractoriness are no longer hindrances to deposition. My twenty three years of engineering practice has exposed me to both theory and practice. The experience is what is being utilized in the writing of the first edition of this book ′′Surface Finishing Engineering and Technology for Engineers and Scientists.′′ In 2008 I was in Japan and received training in more than thirty companies which were involved in surface finishing engineering. That training was granted by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and partnering companies in Japan with the objectives of helping Nigeria and the African Continent to overcome the problem of poor finishing of products which as expected always lead to poor quality products. The program was a train the trainer program and the authors have been training people on how they can have improved metal properties from the materials of the training. This book is today written as a result of the advice I received from LAMBERT Academic Publishing Company of Germany. The company saw one of my publications in International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, a France based journal, and requested that the paper be made into a book. The publication was part of a training paper given to some trainees. The topic of the publication was Recent Trends and Developments in Surface Hardening Technology: A Focus on New Ceramics for Surface Modification in Industry, which forms a chapter in this book.